By Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier
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Additional resources for A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity
At the same time, increased demand for food (consider the famine of 1816) resulted in the need to grow food on marginal agricultural land and forested sites. Widespread applications of agroforestry practices encouraged artificial regeneration, and it became common that forests were cut and farmed for a few years before being abandoned again. Farming practices such as plowing, grazing, seeding, and harvesting of food crops eliminated or damaged natural regeneration; consequently, artificial regeneration was seen as the only viable option for reestablishing forests on these sites, and therefore the practice expanded (Hausrath 1982; Hasel 1985; Mantel 1990).
The widespread application of Plenterung had devastating effects on forests, leading to widespread areas with no or poor-quality trees (Vanselow 1963). Consequently, between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries, regulations that prohibited Plenterung were put in place in many regions (Vanselow 1963). Starting in the nineteenth century, the practice developed into a formal silvicultural system. , the 1810 forest law in Baden, Germany) mainly to avoid erosion and/or provide permanent avalanche protection on steep slopes (Mantel 1990).
Many of the trees cut in larger units (what we now call stands) would not have been utilizable (see also discussion of clearcutting). Harvesting activities became more concentrated in the Middle Ages, as tree regeneration became an important consideration for foresters when determining harvesting layout (Hausrath 1982; Hasel 1985; Mantel 1990). Specifically, the shift toward stands and management of stands was initiated (1) because of the inability to regenerate new trees under high grazing pressure by wildlife and farm animals, (2) to increase harvesting efficiency, or (3) for inventory and planning purposes (Hausrath 1982), and not because stands were logical, ecologically defined management units.
A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity by Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier